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Short-Term Reaction of BİST Indexes to Shocks: A Macro Analysis

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Short-Term Reaction of BİST Indexes to Shocks: A Macro Analysis
Author(s): Ali Ulvi OZGUL, Ibrahim Korkmaz KAHRAMAN
Volume: 10
Number: 1
Year: 2019
Page: xx-xx
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.151
Abstract
This research, which takes stock market index data as input in contrast to De Bondt and Thaler’s (1985) classical approach for testing overreaction hypothesis on a micro scale via individual stocks, is aimed at analyzing reactions of the market in aggregate and portfolio groups, which are represented by indexes. The shock-filtering procedure is based on 50-day window, encompassing observations from 60 days to 11 days prior to an observation as suggested by Lasfer et al. (2003) while volatility has been estimated through Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) method. Indexes resembling each other and significantly differing from others in terms of their reaction on the day of shocks, which are detected by a different threshold have been determined. The analysis implemented separately for two subperiods outputs findings which support the validity of underreaction on all indexes except XUSIN within 2000-2008, in line with the reference researches on indexes. This result is, however valid only for positive shocks. The cautious behavior against good news disappears in the second subperiod (2009-2018). This variation can be regarded as a sign of our market’s progress in terms of information efficiency. Putting forth no significant over or underreaction of indexes to shocks, this paper shows results in compatible with the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) which asserts just and timely reactions to shocks.

Keywords: Behavioral Finance, Overreaction Hypothesis, Underreaction Hypothesis, Efficient Market Hypothesis, EWMA Filtering

JEL Classification: G40, G12, G14, G32

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The Relationship Between Social Welfare and Taxation in The Context of Welfare Economics: Evaluation of Turkish Revenue Tax

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Relationship Between Social Welfare and Taxation in The Context of Welfare Economics: Evaluation of Turkish Revenue Tax
Author(s):  Ufuk Selen, Ebru Karas
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 979-993
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.150
Abstract
Welfare Economics in normative economics emphasizes the preference of alternative situations by the society. The social welfare constitutes the main point of welfare economics. In this context, the main purpose of welfare economics, which puts forth what should be, is to provide social welfare at the highest level. It is considered that social welfare will rise to the highest level by providing a society-acceptable balance between efficiency and justice in resource allocation. Although there are many determining factors of social welfare, one of the most important is taxation. Because taxation affects the individual’s socio-economic quality of life through effect of income, substitution, and decision-making, while directly determining the budgetary means of the individual. The purpose of the study in this direction is determined the effect of income tax applied in Turkey on level of social welfare starting from relation between social welfare and taxation. Within the scope of this purpose, evaluations in terms of the effects of Turkish income tax applications on efficiency and justice in resource allocation have been made.

Keywords: Welfare Economics, Social Welfare, Taxation, Income Tax, Turkish Income Tax

JEL Classification: D60, D63, H20

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The Mediation Effect of Green Marketing Activities on Green Brand Awareness and Consumer Purchase Intention

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Mediation Effect of Green Marketing Activities on Green Brand Awareness and Consumer Purchase Intention
Author(s): Bulent Ozsacmaci
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 945-960
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.149
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the link between green brand awareness and consumer purchasing intentions in green marketing activities. This is a quantitative based descriptive study in relational model. The gathered data explored the mediating effect of the variables using the partial least squares (PLS) approach for the analysis of structural equation model. A field study was conducted on 387 individuals living in Ankara by using a survey technique. The outcomes of the literature reviews and hypothesis analyzes indicate that consumers’ purchasing behavior is affected by the green awareness of brands and green marketing activities. Also, the results acquired with the PLS method stated that green marketing activities in the retail market products mediates the link between the green brand awareness and the consumer purchasing intention. Besides, consumer’s education level and income situation, partially mediates the relationship between green brand awareness and consumer buying intention. It should be noted that there are many sub-elements which may lead to the change of terms in these relations. Such as, consumer’s brand awareness level and the interest about the benefits and features of the green brand concept are the important indicators. The demographic and psychographic characteristics of the consumers have also contributed to the research in understanding these relationships.

Keywords: Green Marketing Practices, Green Consumption, Green Brand Awareness, Purchasing Intention, Mediation Effect

JEL Classification: M31, M37

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The Effects of In-App Mobile Ads Types on The Attitude Towards and Acceptance of Ads

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Effects of In-App Mobile Ads Types on The Attitude Towards and Acceptance of Ads
Author(s): Mutlu Yuksel Avcilar, Banu Kulter Demirgunes, Gulhan Yenilmez
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 923-943
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.148
Abstract
The widespread use of smartphones has increased the level of usage of in-app mobile ads. In order to use in-app mobile ads effectively, it is important to identify the consumers’ attitudes towards in-app ads, the value they perceive in-app ads and the factors that might affect the level of acceptance of the in-app mobile ads. This study tests the factors affecting mobile advertising acceptance for three different mobile advertising types. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the in-app mobile ads on the attitude toward in-app mobile ads, the value they perceive, and acceptance of in-app mobile ads. The data were collected from the 550 smartphone users living in Ankara by using convenience sampling and face-to-face survey method. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the relations among variables. Analysis results revealed that the attitude towards and value perceived from in-app mobile advertisements have positive effects on the acceptance of in-app mobile advertising. Besides, analysis results revealed that interactivity, entertainment, and reliability are the most effective factors on the attitude and the most effective factor on the perceived value is the attitude. Moreover, analysis results indicated that for the banner ads the attitude has the highest impact on the perceived value. Finally, it is found that perceived ads value has the highest impact on the acceptance of in-app mobile advertising for the interactive transition (video) ads.

Keywords: Mobile Ad, Attitude Towards Mobile Ad, Perceived Value of Mobile Ad, Types of Mobile Ad, Accepting Mobile Ad

JEL Classification: M30, M31, M37

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“Networking Mechanisms” at the Beginning of the Internationalization Process

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: “Networking Mechanisms” at the Beginning of the Internationalization Process
Author(s): Cigdem Baskici, Yavuz Ercil
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 911-922
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.147
Abstract
In our study, the networking mechanisms that the Turkish companies use for internationalization is aimed to reveal. For this purpose, a quantitative research has been carried out on small and medium sized companies that have export certificates from Ankara between 01.01.2018-30.03.2018. Findings from 90 companies operating in various sectors reveal that firms mainly benefit from 3 types of networking mechanisms in internationalization. The vast majority of companies (52.2%) use the networks that they strategically formed. This can be interpreted that companies can form network for internationalization actively. The other two widespread networking mechanisms are using social relationships with current acquaintance (23.3%) and business relationships with existing customers/suppliers (13.3%). A little tendency of using networks that could be created with the support of public institutions is determined among the companies. Nevertheless, companies do not use the possible contributions of umbrella organizations in forming networks for internationalization. Although public institutions and umbrella organizations intensively pursue their support for exporting, such a situation can be seen as a result of the fact that companies do not have sufficient knowledge of the support provided. The findings make it possible for companies as the decision makers, and public institutions and professional organizations as policy makers to develop various suggestions.

Keywords: Internationalization Process, International Management, Internationalization Strategy, Network Relations, Networking

JEL Classification: M10, M16, L21, D85, L14

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An Investigation of the Entrepreneurial Tendency in terms of Demographic Variables

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: An Investigation of the Entrepreneurial Tendency in terms of Demographic Variables
Author(s): Ayhan Yalcinsoy, Cenk Aksoy
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 901-909
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.146
Abstract
The research was conducted on students studying at a public university. The entrepreneurial tendencies of the students in the survey were examined in terms of demographic variables. The data used in the research were obtained by questionnaire method. The data obtained with the participation of 2299 students were subjected to t-test, ANOVA and frequency analyzes with SPSS 18.0 statistical program. As a result of the analysis; significant relationships were found between educational status, age, gender, and entrepreneurial tendencies. It was found that there was a significant difference between educational status and entrepreneurial tendencies that entrepreneurial tendencies of associate and graduate students were higher than others. It was found that there was a significant difference between the age of students and entrepreneurship trends that entrepreneurial tendencies of those aged between 20-24 years were found to be higher than those of the other age groups. Moreover, there is a significant difference between students’ genders and entrepreneurial tendencies that men’s entrepreneurial tendencies are higher than women’s entrepreneurial tendencies. There was no significant relationship between the income status of the demographic variables and the class of the student and entrepreneurial tendencies.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Tendencies, University, Demographic Variables

JEL Classification: L26, J13

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The Effects of Social Responsibility Activities on Stakeholders’ Purchase Intention

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Effects of Social Responsibility Activities on Stakeholders’ Purchase Intention
Author(s): Cagla P. Bozoklu
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 889-900
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.145
Abstract
Following the anti-globalization movement, an ideology, which reflects a climate of defiance toward businesses, has spread out to the societies. Thereby, corporates have begun to engage in socially responsible behaviors not only to meet stakeholder expectations, but also to achieve their goal-oriented considerations. This research aims to analyze effects of corporates’ social and environmental responsibility activities on the purchase intentions of stakeholders by integrating the perspectives of obligations. Corporate Reputation Scale was conducted to most important stakeholder groups (customers, employees, rival corporates’ employees and public) by using purposive and random sampling methods. For the reliability measurement, a pre-test was conducted on 112 participants and during the research 680 questionnaires were gathered. Results reveal that the reflections of CSR image can differ according to the market. In the banking market, both making efforts for creating new jobs (economic obligation), taking responsibility on environmental issues (social obligation) and reducing its profits to ensure a clean environment (ethical obligation) are valuable. In the air transportation market social and economic obligations are perceived as significant by stakeholders whereas in the communication market social and ethical obligations are perceived as significant.

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Environmental Responsibility, Stakeholder, Purchase Intention, Turkey

JEL Classification: G21, L10, L21, L80, M14, Q56

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Human Energy at Work and a Research on Identifying the Antecedents

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Human Energy at Work and a Research on Identifying the Antecedents
Author(s): Ali Bayram
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 871-888
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.144
Abstract
Occurring increases in human energy provide to increase organizational outputs such as performance rising, formation of positive feeling and high motivation. Because of these advantages provided by an organizational perspective, being high of employees’ energy levels is extremely important for foundations. In this study, it is tried to reveal how a relation there is between organizational justice, job satisfaction, person-job fit, person-organization fit, leader-member exchange theory, burnout concepts and human energy. A survey that was formed in parallel with purpose of the research applied to 1750 employees from several enterprises operating Kayseri province in Turkey. As a result of multiple regression analyses that were made by the data obtained, it was confirmed that the organizational justice, job satisfaction, person-job fit, person-organization fit, leader-member exchange theory have a positive effect and burnout has a negative effect on the human energy.

Keywords: Human Energy, Human Energy at Work, Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, Person-Job Fit, Person-Organization Fit, Leader-Member Exchange Theory, Burnout

JEL Classification: D23, M12, J24

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Sources and Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Multidimensional Study across European Countries and Turkey

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Sources and Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Multidimensional Study across European Countries and Turkey
Author(s): Ozge Demiral
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 855-870
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.143
Abstract
Addressing the lack of cross-national and multidimensional research in the relevant literature, this paper examines the relationships between two sources and various predictors of work-family conflict of employees by utilizing a three-year discreet dataset of 23 European countries and Turkey. Stress sources of work-family conflict are proxied by number and inflexibility of working hours whereas their predictors are represented by career advancement opportunity, business internationalization, paid parental leave scheme, governmental family support, and prevalence of employees’ technology use. Additionally, cultural origins of social support are also controlled using both value and regional clusters of national cultures. Results from fixed-effect model estimation reveal that average annual hours worked per employee are negatively related to career advancement opportunity and technology adoption whereas business internationalization and paid parental leave opportunities cause longer working hours. Inflexible working is negatively associated with all variables except for the insignificant impact of technology adoption. The culture was found mattering for work-family conflict but explaining the variations in working hours and inflexible scheduling differently. The study concludes with suggestions for future research and implications based on findings and limitations.

Keywords: Work-family conflict, Working hours, Inflexible working, Family domain, Border

JEL Classification: C30, D70, J10, J20

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Reflections of Industrial Revolution on Work Life in England and Its Projections in Literature: An Analysis on Charles Dickens’s Hard Times

 
Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Reflections of Industrial Revolution on Work Life in England and Its Projections in Literature: An Analysis on Charles Dickens’s Hard Times
Author(s): Hatice Ozutku, Yasemin Tekinkaya, Tuba Vural
Volume: 9
Number: 4
Year: 2018
Page: 839-853
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2018.142
Abstract
The Industrial Revolution, which began in England in the eighteenth century, is the result of a long period of social and economic evolution extending into the late Middle Ages. Apart from its several favorable outcomes, Industrial Revolution caused some undesirable outcomes for working life. The aim of this study is to inspect Dickens’s Hard Times which can be counted as one of the preliminary works that reflected on effects of Industrial Revolution on working life with a critical perspective within the scope of administrative mentality of that time. Within this context, scientific works which focused on the intellectual foundations of the industrial era and Dicken’s Hard Times are taken into consideration for the conceptional framework of the study. Qualitative research approach has been adopted to the study and through the inspection of the novel, the main perspectives which make up the foundations of management mentality have been evaluated. As a result of this study, it is seen that positivitism, economy science and utilitarianism have been influential in the management concept and practices of the Industrial Revolution era. In Hard Times, Dickens propounds the negative effects of these perspectives which can be useful for the humankind when used for good causes.

Keywords: Industrial Revolution in England, History of Management, Charles Dickens, Hard Times, Positivism, Work Life

JEL Classification: B00, M00, L00

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