Category: Manuscript

Is Employee Voice Affected By Satisfaction With Leader And Occupational Identification?: Example of Service Sector Employees

Is Employee Voice Affected By Satisfaction With Leader And Occupational Identification?: Example of Service Sector Employees

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Is Employee Voice Affected By Satisfaction With Leader And Occupational Identification?: Example of Service Sector Employees
Author(s): Rukiye Can Yalcin, Pinar Fayganoglu
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 329-348
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.376
Abstract
This study aims to examine the effects of service sector employees’ occupational identification and satisfaction with the leader on employee voice. The variables of the study were investigated in the context of social exchange and path-goal theories. For this purpose, the data obtained through questionnaires from 303 employees working in different service sectors in Malatya and Ankara were analyzed. t-test, ANOVA, and hierarchical regression analysis were used in the analysis of the data. According to the findings, occupational identification and satisfaction with the leader positively and significantly affect the employee voice in the service sector. There is no study available in the literature that directly deals with the bilateral relations of these variables in terms of service sector employees. In this context, it is considered that the findings of the study will be important for both the literature and practitioners.

Keywords: Satisfaction with Leader, Occupational Identification, Employee Voice

JEL Classification: L20, M1, M10

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Investigating Moral Emotions in Organizations: The Role of Moral Elevation in Organizational Research

Investigating Moral Emotions in Organizations: The Role of Moral Elevation in Organizational Research

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Investigating Moral Emotions in Organizations: The Role of Moral Elevation in Organizational Research
Author(s): Furkan Marasli, Ali Ekber Akgun, Busra Muceldili
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 319-328
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.375
Abstract
In recent years, the relationship between moral emotions and positive work outcomes in organizational studies has attracted great attention by researchers. Moral emotions family serves to support the moral standards institutionalized by the society. In organizational context, it helps individuals to evaluate not only their own behaviour but also the behaviour of others they interact with. Moral elevation, which is an emotion belonging to the family of moral emotions; refers to the emotion that individuals experience when they witness a moral beauty. Current literature provides numerous studies conducted to explore and test the conceptualization of moral elevation, its antecedents and consequences and the linkage mechanisms with other concepts. This conceptual study will outline the moral elevation literature by drawing its theoretical background and identify the findings and variables linked to the concept. Introducing moral elevation concept to the local literature will be expected to guide scholars for further research. Suggestions for theoretical research and practical implications are presented for both scholars and practitioners.

Keywords: Moral Elevation, Moral Emotions, Emotions, Positive Emotions, Broaden-and-Build Theory

JEL Classification: M10, M12

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Financial Performance of Football Clubs and The Impact of The Covid-19 Epidemic: Comparison of the Five National League of Union of European Football Associations

Financial Performance of Football Clubs and The Impact of The Covid-19 Epidemic: Comparison of the Five National League of Union of European Football Associations

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Financial Performance of Football Clubs and The Impact of The Covid-19 Epidemic: Comparison of the Five National League of Union of European Football Associations
Author(s): Erdinc Karadeniz, Omer Iskenderoglu
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 299-317
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.374
Abstract
The main purposes of this research are to comparatively analyse the financial performance of football clubs in national leagues in the European continent and to examine the effects of the Covid-19 outbreak on financial performance. In this context, the financial performance of 23 football clubs in five national leagues (Italy-Seria A, England-Premier League, Portugal-Liga Nos, Denmark-Superliga, Turkey-Super Lig) affiliated to the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and whose financial data are available between 2017-2021 was examined by the ratio analysis method. In the study, it was also tested with the wilcoxon signed rank test whether there is a statistically significant difference in the financial performance of football clubs between the pre-Covid-19 epidemic (2017-2019) and post-Covid-19 epidemic (2020-2021) period. As a result of the research, it has been determined that the liquidity and financial risk levels of football clubs are very high, whereas their profitability, activity and cash flow performance are very low. It was determined that the activity, profitability and cash flow performance of football clubs decreased further after the Covid 19 epidemic. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was found only in terms of activity ratios and return on asset ratio in the context of the pre- and post-epidemic period.

Keywords: Financial Performance, Ratio Analysis, Football Clubs, Covid-19 Outbreak, UEFA

JEL Classification: M41, Z20, Z23

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The Effect of Behavioral Instruments on the Savings in Private Pension Plans: The Case of Turkey

The Effect of Behavioral Instruments on the Savings in Private Pension Plans: The Case of Turkey

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Effect of Behavioral Instruments on the Savings in Private Pension Plans: The Case of Turkey
Author(s): Tulin Altun, Aykut Aydin
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 271-297
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.373
Abstract
In Turkey, significant changes have been made in the legislation of Individual Pension System (IPS) in 2012 (matching contribution system has been introduced) and 2016 (Automatic Enrollment System has been established). Thus, behavioral instruments which can be defined as libertarian paternalistic, such as default rules and framing, have begun to be used more effectively in IPS. When the progress in IPS between the years 2003-2021 is examined, it has been determined that behavioral instruments have a positive effect on the savings in the system, but these effects are small. It was concluded that the participants decided to continue or exit IPS with rational reasons. Participants who can benefit from full state subsidy in shorter time, have higher continuation rate and contribution amounts in the system. Participants exit the system when exits are optimal (such as after 36th months when they are entitled to benefit from the minimum state subsidy, and after the 5th year when entrance fees are no longer charged). With rational reasons like the real return of IPS being lower compared to alternative investment instruments and its fund management fees being high, the households in Turkey either do not prefer saving on IPS or see the IPS as a short-term saving instrument.

Keywords: Individual Pension System, Default Rules, Framing, Libertarian Paternalism

JEL Classification: D14, D91, G18

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Evaluating the Solution of Negative Externalities with the WINGS Method

Evaluating the Solution of Negative Externalities with the WINGS Method

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Evaluating the Solution of Negative Externalities with the WINGS Method
Author(s): Ibrahim Tolga Coskun, Oguzhan Bozatli
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 257-270
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.372
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate market and public solution proposals by comparing them in the internalization of negative externalities. In this framework, ten different criteria recommended in the studies conducted in the relevant field were discussed, and the examinations on these criteria were carried out by academicians working in one of the departments of fiscal theory or fiscal economics. For qualitative views to be converted into quantitative ones, to examine whether criteria are related to each other or not, and to reveal the existing relationships between criteria, WINGS, one of the multi-criteria decision-making techniques, was used as a method. In addition to the WINGS method results, the individual evaluation results of the academicians were given and compared. In this comparison, findings that were compatible and incompatible with the academicians’ individual evaluation views were also found. These similarities and differences were discussed in the study, and their possible reasons were revealed. Moreover, within the framework of the effects of criteria on each other, the affecting and affected groups’ differentiation were discussed. As a result of this evaluation, it was concluded that public solutions are more effective than market solutions among the solutions of negative externalities. It has been determined that taxes and regulations are the most effective solutions.

Keywords: Externality, Public Economics, Multi Criteria Decision Making Techniques, Decision Analysis, WINGS

JEL Classification: H23, C44, C65

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Effects of Uncertainties on Mode of Payment Terms in Foreign Trade between Turkey and the US: The Time-Varying Bootstrap Causality Test

Effects of Uncertainties on Mode of Payment Terms in Foreign Trade between Turkey and the US: The Time-Varying Bootstrap Causality Test

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Effects of Uncertainties on Mode of Payment Terms in Foreign Trade between Turkey and the US: The Time-Varying Bootstrap Causality Test
Author(s): Oguzhan Ozcelik
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 239-256
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.371
Abstract
In this study, the effects of trade and economy policy uncertainties (TPU and EPU) and degree of volatility in the stock markets (VIX) on mode of payment preferred in foreign trade activities between Turkey and the US were analyzed through the Hacker and Hatemi-J (2012) bootstrap causality test for the 2002:01-2021:M05 periods, and the Yilanci and Kilci (2021) time-varying bootstrap causality test for the sub-periods. According to the Hacker and Hatemi-J (2012) test, there are causality relations from TPU to Turkey’s cash exports to the US, from VIX to Turkey’s deferred exports to the US, from EPU to Turkey’s deferred imports from the US as well as to the payment against goods import. The results of the Yilanci and Kilci (2021) test show that the Turkish and US companies try to secure themselves, preferring cash exports during periods of increased uncertainties in the US’ trade and economy policies. This impact has stood out more specifically during Trump’s presidency (2016-2020) and Covid-19 pandemic. While EPU has been more determinative in deferred exports from Turkey to the US, TPU, EPU and VIX have been more effective in Turkey’s imports from the US. EPU and VIX are the determinants in payment against goods trade activities between Turkey and the US. Therefore, for Turkish companies trading with the US, it would be fine to follow closely the TPU, EPU and VIX indicators in the US.

Keywords: Trade Policy Uncertainties, Economy Policy Uncertainties, Volatility Index in the Markets, Payment Terms in Foreign Trade, Time-varying Causality Test

JEL Classification: D81, F14, F41

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Clustering Countries on Logistics Performance and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis

Clustering Countries on Logistics Performance and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Clustering Countries on Logistics Performance and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis
Author(s): Mustafa Polat, Karahan Kara, Galip Cihan Yalcin
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 221-238
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.370
Abstract
The logistics industry is among the industries that affect carbon dioxide emissions. The logistics activities of the countries produce CO2 emissions. For this reason, there is a significant relationship between the logistics performance of countries and their CO2 emissions. In this study, it is aimed to make a cluster analysis by considering the CO2 emission per capita efficiency of the countries and their logistics performance. The empirical study was completed in three stages. In the first stage, hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted with the logistics performances of the countries and the CO2 emission per capita. In the second stage, the CO2 emission per capita efficiency based on the logistics performance sub-indicators of the countries were determined by data envelopment analysis. In the third stage, non-hierarchical clustering analysis was performed with the variables of logistics performances and CO2 emission per capita efficiency of the countries. 2018 logistics performance index (LPI) and CO2 emission per capita data of 150 countries were used. According to the research findings, there are differences in the findings of hierarchical clustering analysis and non-hierarchical clustering analysis. In the conclusion part of the study, the differences between the clusters were explained and suggestions were developed for the researchers.

Keywords: Logistics Performance, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission, Hierarchical Clustering Analysis, Non-Hierarchical Clustering Analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis

JEL Classification: M10, M20

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The Relationship of Export, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and Carbon Emission in Turkey

The Relationship of Export, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and Carbon Emission in Turkey

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Relationship of Export, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and Carbon Emission in Turkey
Author(s): Mine Yilmazer, Batuhan Karabiber
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 199-220
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.369
Abstract
In recent years, liberalization of trade and rapid industrialization activities have increased Turkey’s share in carbon dioxide CO2 emissions and global warming, like other emerging market economies. In this context, the research carried out and the measures to be taken are very important for future generations. The aim of this study is to test the effects of exports, foreign direct investments (FDI), and gross domestic product (GDP) on environmental pollution in Turkey. Additionally, the change in the competitiveness of the export of dirty sectors in Turkey in recent years has been examined in the study. In this context, two separate analyzes were carried out. Firstly, the competitiveness in the export of dirty sectors between 1995-2019 was calculated using Balassa (1965)’s Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) Index. It has been determined that Turkey has a comparative advantage in iron-steel, non-metallic minerals, and paper sectors. In the second stage, the ARDL bound test for the existence of a long-term relationship between exports, FDI, GDP, and CO2 emissions between 1974-2019 in Turkey, and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test was applied to determine the direction of the relationship between the variables. According to the findings, exports have a statistically significant effect on CO2 emissions. On the other hand, no strong link and causality relationship was found between FDI and CO2 emissions.

Keywords: Pollution Haven Hypothesis, Revealed Comparative Advantage, Export of Dirty Sectors, Foreign Direct Investments

JEL Classification: F14, F18, F43

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Relationship with Regional Unemployment and Types of Crime in Turkey: Panel Data Approach

Relationship with Regional Unemployment and Types of Crime in Turkey: Panel Data Approach

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Relationship with Regional Unemployment and Types of Crime in Turkey: Panel Data Approach
Author(s): Mehmet Cinar, Canan Tas
Volume: 13
Number: 2
Year: 2022
Page: 179-197
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.368
Abstract
In this study, using the 2009-2019 period data for 26 regions of Turkey, the relationship between unemployment and crime types was examined with a panel data approach. In addition, the crime model was analyzed in two categories as against property and life. According to the findings obtained from the analysis results, it was concluded that the relationship between unemployment and crime was positive in the direction of expectations. When evaluated in terms of different crime types, it was revealed that the most common crime type of unemployed individuals was theft, and the least type of crime was insult. When looking at the results of crimes against property and life, it was determined that the increase in unemployment by one thousand increases the crimes against property almost three times compared to crimes against life. In addition, it was determined that the increases in unemployment and divorce increase the tendency to crime, and the increases in income and education reduce the tendency to crime. Furthermore, unemployment, divorce, income, and education variables were all found to be more effective on crimes against property than crimes against life. Although many independent variables were used in the multiple regression model, it was determined that the most effective variable on crime was unemployment.

Keywords: Unemployment, Crime, Fixed Effects Model, Random Effects Model, PCSE

JEL Classification: C23, E24, K42

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Factors Affecting Combi Boiler Preferences of Consumers: A Study in Context of Technology Acceptance Model

Factors Affecting Combi Boiler Preferences of Consumers: A Study in Context of Technology Acceptance Model

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Factors Affecting Combi Boiler Preferences of Consumers: A Study in Context of Technology Acceptance Model
Author(s): Volkan Ozbek, Izay Tahtaci
Volume: 13
Number: 1
Year: 2022
Page: 159-178
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2022.367
Abstract
The main purpose of this research is to determine the factors affecting the combi boiler preferences of consumers within the scope of the Technology Acceptance Model. In the research model, as well as the Technology Acceptance Model variables, there are perceived risk and subjective norm variables that are thought to be effective in combi boiler preference. In order to achieve the research aim, an online questionnaire was applied to 267 people who purchased natural gas combi boilers in the last year, selected by guided sampling method. Structural equation modeling was used in the analysis of the collected data. When the findings obtained as a result of the analyzes were evaluated, it was concluded that the variables of perceived ease of use, perceived benefit, perceived risk, and subjective norm were effective on attitude. In addition, it was observed that the relationship between the attitude variable and the intention variable, which was tested in this study, was positive and statistically significant. In addition, the expected relationship between the subjective norm variable and the perceived benefit variable could not be confirmed in this study.

Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model, Natural Gas Combi Boiler, Perceived Risk, Subjective Norm

JEL Classification: M30, M31

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