Writing Style and Page Layout
Manuscripts submitted to the Business and Economics Research Journal should be written in Microsoft Word format with Calibri 11 font size and single-spaced. Page layout should be A4 format, and margins should be 3cm for all sides of the page. Page numbers should be located on the top right side of the paper. The manuscripts which are not suitable for the conditions related to the formatting are returned to the author(s) without sending them to the referees.
Any manuscript submitted for publication should be between 4,000 and 8,000 words, including appendices and references. However, if the Editor or Editorial Board approves, longer papers can be taken into the evaluation process.
The title (cover) page must contain the following information:
– The title of the manuscript,
– The name and academic titles of the author(s),
– ORCID iD of the author(s),
– Institutional affiliation(s) of the author(s),
– Full contact information of author(s) (address, phone number, e-mail, etc…),
– Any acknowledgments the authors care to make.
The title of the manuscript should be written in bold (first letters in capital letters) and the center of the page. Also, the name and contact information (address, phone number, e-mail, etc..) of the author(s) should be written in the center of the page.
When the authors include more than one researcher, a person responsible for correspondence with the Editorial Board of the Journal should be indicated. If the corresponding author is not indicated, the Editorial Board will contact the author who submitted the manuscript to the Journal.
The title page should be saved separately from the blinded manuscript and uploaded to the system as a separate file.
The manuscript file includes the parts of the study. No author’s details should be present within this file. The manuscript submitted to the Journal should include the following parts:
– Abstract, keywords, and JEL codes,
– Main text,
– End notes (if there is any),
– References and
– Appendix/Appendices (if there is any).
Title of the Manuscript
The title of the manuscript should be suitable for the content, and it should consist of 12 words at the most. The title of the manuscript should be written in bold (first letters in capital letters) and the center of the page. English titles should be written in Turkish manuscripts.
Abstract, Keywords, and JEL Codes
The manuscript should include an abstract in Turkish and English at the beginning of the article in Turkish manuscripts. The abstracts should concisely present the aim of the study, the methodology, the results, and the concluding remarks. The length of each abstract should be a minimum of 150 words and a maximum of 180 words. References are not cited within the English or Turkish abstracts, and the abstracts must not contain abbreviations. Five (5) important and relevant keywords to the manuscript should be written in English and Turkish.
The manuscript should also contain at least two classification codes according to the Classification System for Journal Articles used by the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL).
Main Text and Section Headings
The main text should be in Microsoft Calibri with 11 pt. The whole main text should be justified. Paragraph spacing before and after a single paragraph (6 nk) should be given. The first line of the paragraph is to be shifted by 1 cm from the left margin. Headings and sub-headings of the manuscript should be numbered as 1., 1.1., 1.1.1. in hierarchical numbers. The headings should be partitioned into not more than three levels. The sub-heading after level 3 should be written italics and bold. The headings should be numbered beginning from the Introduction, except References. All headings should be bold, but only the first letters should be capitalized. Before a heading (12 nk), and after a heading (6 nk) should be given.
Tables and Figures
Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively, as Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, and Tables and figures should be placed where they are most appropriate in the text. The titles of the tables and figures should be placed at the top of the tables or figures, and references belonging to the tables or figures should be under them. The figures and tables with their names should be centered in the text. The font size in the tables and figures may be 9 pt at least. Figures and tables should be separated from the text by one-line intervals. Complex and long tables or data can be put at the end of the study as appendixes.
Mathematical Notations and Equations
Mathematical equations in the text should be centered. Equations should be numbered consecutively, and equation numbers should appear in parentheses at the right margin. Between an equation and text, there should be an interval of (6 nk).
Citations in the text should be made using the link method according to the APA (American Psychological Association) citation style. In-text citations, the author’s last name, the publication date, and the number of quoted pages (direct quotation) should be mentioned. If the name of the referred author is given within the text (narrative citation), then only the publication date should be written in parentheses after the author’s last name. If the source has two authors, the last names of both should be given. In the narrative citation, “and” should be used between the two authors’ last names. In parenthetical citation (author’s last name in parentheses after the sentence), “&” should be used between two authors’ last names. When there are three or more authors in the cited source, only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” should be written. When an author has published more than one cited study in the same year, the citations should be distinguished by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year. The citations should be ordered alphabetically and separated with semicolons for multiple references.
Examples of In-text Citations
Approximately 40% of the trade between the EU and the US is between parent companies and foreign subsidiaries (Stewart, 1993).
There are three strategic objectives of international transfer pricing (Hoshower & Mandel, 1986: 53)
Hoshower and Mandel (1986: 53) stated that there were three strategic objectives of international transfer pricing.
According to Ceylan et al. (2020), the economic impact is bi-directional for COVID-19. Covid-19 affected both supply and demand (Ceylan et al., 2020: 820).
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) shows no statistically meaningful relationship between systematic risk (beta) and returns (Fama & French, 1996a, 1996b).
There is a relationship between customer satisfaction and profitability (Anderson et al., 1994). Anderson et al. (1994) found that highly satisfied customers were willing to pay premium prices.
Bilici et al. (1998) investigated the association between the level of burnout and demographic factors. They found a relationship between demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and marital status and burnout.
The results of prior studies have confirmed the hypothesis that high job satisfaction is associated with low burnout (Dolan, 1987; Penn et al., 1988; Rocca & Konstanski, 2001; Sobreques et al., 2003).
Footnotes and Endnotes
Explanations in the main text should be given at the end of the manuscript before the references section and written in order.
The references should be written alphabetically by the last name of its first author. Each citation in the text should be listed in the references section, and references not cited in the text should not be written in the references section. If more than one study of the same author(s) is cited, the oldest publication should be listed first. If more than one study of the author(s) with the same publication date is cited, the references should be listed using the letters (a, b, c, …) after the publication date, as in the text. If several studies of an author with one or more authors are referred to, the publications with one author should be written first. If a source has up to 20 authors, all of the authors’ last names should be written. If a source has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), the DOI link should be written at the end of the source’s information.
Some examples of reference formats are shown below. You can see the APA Style website and Publication Manual of APA (7th Edition) for detailed information and examples.
Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53-66. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252310
Bilici, M., Mete, F., Soylu C., Bekaroglu, M., & Kavakci, O. (1998). Bir grup akademisyende depresyon ve tükenme düzeyleri. Journal of Turkish Psychiatry, 9(3), 181-189.
Ceylan, R. F., Ozkan, B., & Mulazimogullari, E. (2020). Historical evidence for economic effects of COVID‑19. The European Journal of Health Economics, 21, 817-823. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-020-01206-8
Fama, E. F., & French, K. R. (1996a). Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies. Journal of Finance, 51(1), 55-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1996.tb05202.x
Fama, E. F., & French, K. R. (1996b). The CAPM is wanted, dead or alive. Journal of Finance, 51(5), 1947-1958. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1996.tb05233.x
Hoshower, L. B., & Mandel, L. (1986). Transfer pricing policies of US-based multinationals. The International Journal of Accounting, 22(1), 51-59.
Sobreques, J., Cebria, J., Segura, J., Rodriguez, C., Garcia, M., & Juncosa, S. (2003). Job satisfaction and burnout in general practitioners. Aten Primaria, 31(4), 227-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0212-6567(03)79164-1
Yurdakul, F. (2008). Türkiye’de kayıtdısı ekonomi: Bir model denemesi. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 63(4), 205-221. https://doi.org/10.1501/SBFder_0000002084
Alpugan, O., Demir, H., Oktav, M., & Uner, N. (1995). İsletme ekonomisi ve yonetimi. Beta Yayınları.
Blank, L., & Tarquin, A. (2002). Engineering economy. McGraw-Hill.
Dayananda, D., Irons, R., Harrison, S., Herbohn, J., & Rowland, P. (2002). Capital budgeting: Financial appraisal of investment projects. Cambridge University Pres.
Gujarati, D. (2006). Temel ekonometri (U. Senesen & G. G. Senesen, Trans.). Literatur Yayınları.
Seyidoglu, H. (2001). Uluslararası finans (3rd ed.) Guzem Yayınları.
Edited Books and Chapters in Edited Books
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016
Beumee, J. G. B., Hilberink, B., Patel, S., & Walsh, P. (1999). Hedging derivative credit risk. In L. Donaldson (Ed.), Derivative credit risk (pp. 185-196). Risk Books.
Ceylan, A. (2006). Belirsizlik kosulları altında sermaye butcelemesi. In N. Aydın (Ed.), Finansal yönetim (pp. 189-204). AOF Yayınları.
Gülmez, A., & Beşe, F. (Eds.). (2018). Economic growth: Theory and practice. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Gülmez, A., & Inal, V. (2018). The convergence analysis of OECD founding countries. In A. Gülmez & F. Beşe (Eds.), Economic growth: Theory and practice (pp. 90-105). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Modigliani, F., & Miller, M. (1998). Sermayenin maliyeti, sirket finansmanı ve yatırım teorisi (S. Soydemir, Trans.) In C. Erol (Ed.), Finans teorisinin temel makaleleri (pp. 165-204). SPK Yayınları.
Mun, J. (2006). Real options and Monte Carlo simulation versus traditional DCF valuation in Layman’s term. http://www.crystalball.com/articles/download/ro-vs-dcf.pdf (Access date: March 10, 2016).
Müderrisoğlu, O. (2006, 21 Ağustos). Anadolu yaklaşımı 70 bin KOBİ’ye hayat verecek. Sabah Gazetesi. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2006/08/21/eko110.html (Access date: October 20, 2007).
Computer and Internet Security. (2000). http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/internet/security.html (Access date: March 22, 2002).
Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/does-money-grow-on-trees-restoring-financing-in-southeast-asia/ (Access date: May 10, 2023).
Türkiye Bankalar Birliği. (2007, Mayıs). Küçük ve orta büyüklükteki işletmelerin mali sektöre olan borçlarının yeniden yapılandırılması programı bilgilendirme notu.
Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı. (2000). İklim değişikliği özel ihtisas komisyonu raporu. Sekizinci beş yıllık kalkınma planı, Ankara.
Sudarsanam, S., Sorwar, G., & Marr, B. (2003, October). Valuation of intellectual capital and real option models. PMA Intellectual Capital Symposium.
Yılmaz, B. (2003). Turkey’s competitiveness in the European Union: A Comparison with five candidate countries – Bulgaria, The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the EU15. Ezoneplus Working Paper No. 12.
Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.
Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.