Category: Makale

Is YouTube a Search Engine or a Social Network?  Analyzing Evaluative Inconsistencies

Is YouTube a Search Engine or a Social Network? Analyzing Evaluative Inconsistencies

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Is YouTube a Search Engine or a Social Network? Analyzing Evaluative Inconsistencies
Author(s): Adnan Veysel Ertemel, Ahmed Ammoura
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 871-881
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.357
Abstract
As broadband internet speed increases worldwide, video consumption habits gain momentum. YouTube is by far the most dominant video platform on the Internet. Apart from its social networking site characteristics, YouTube is also known as the second most visited search engine in the world. This paper studies YouTube from marketing perspective. By looking from the categorization theory, evaluative inconsistencies associated with the YouTube platform are investigated. YouTube platform is unique in that it has hybrid product characteristics encompassing both search engine and social networking site features. In the light of the previous literature on category knowledge, devaluation effect, integrated evaluation and bivariate evaluation space (BES) theories, the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to examine the evaluative inconsistencies between the two categories of YouTube. Findings showed a positive correlation between the two categories, so basically users tend to eliminate the inconsistencies by formulating a general attitude towards both categories. This article makes important contributions to the existing literature by testing such a hybrid model in categorization research. Moreover, the paper has significant managerial implications for the marketers who want to understand the underlying characteristics of different users using a dominant platform like YouTube.

Keywords: Categorization Theory, Evaluative Inconsistencies, YouTube, Search Engine, Social Media

JEL Classification: L86, D91

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Consumer Cynicism towards The Service Sector: A Study in terms of Demographic Characteristics

Consumer Cynicism towards The Service Sector: A Study in terms of Demographic Characteristics

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Consumer Cynicism towards The Service Sector: A Study in terms of Demographic Characteristics
Author(s): Gamze Akcay, Erkan Ozdemir
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 855-870
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.356
Abstract
Consumer cynicism reflects a general belief that businesses are malicious. In line with this belief, cynical consumers have negative feelings towards businesses, and as the severity of cynicism increases, they begin to exhibit very harmful behaviors for businesses. When the relevant literature is examined, it is seen that studies on consumer cynicism are limited, and consumer cynicism has not been adequately researched in terms of demographic characteristics in previous studies. On the other hand, almost no studies address consumer cynicism as a specific attitude towards service businesses or the service sector. Therefore, this study aims to reveal whether consumer cynicism towards the service sector differs according to demographic characteristics. This study was carried out on consumers who buy/use services in Bursa, and convenience sampling and face-to-face survey methods were used in the study. The data were analyzed with an independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. As a result of the analysis, it was found that consumer cynicism towards the service sector differed significantly according to marital status but did not differ significantly according to gender, age, education level, and income. According to the marital status finding of the study, consumer cynicism towards the service sector is more common among married consumers than single consumers.

Keywords: Cynicism, Consumer Cynicism, Demographic Characteristics, Gender, Marital Status, Age, Education, Income

JEL Classification: M30, M31, M39

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Determining the Moderating Role of Career Guidance in the Relationship Between Social Isolation and Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Study on University Students

Determining the Moderating Role of Career Guidance in the Relationship Between Social Isolation and Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Study on University Students

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Determining the Moderating Role of Career Guidance in the Relationship Between Social Isolation and Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Study on University Students
Author(s): Busra Muceldili, Melike Artar, Oya Erdil
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 843-854
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.355
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between university students’ social isolation experience and job search self-efficacy. Demographic variables (gender and seniority) were examined to explain these relationships. In addition, the career guide’s moderator role has been investigated on the relationship between social isolation experience and job search self-efficacy. Within the scope of the research, data were collected from 275 university students using the snowball method. The findings obtained from the sample revealed that social isolation experience was negatively related to job search self-efficacy. According to the results, there is no significant difference between men and women in terms of job search self-efficacy. This study also demonstrated that grade level is essential for explaining job search self-efficacy. Using structural equation modeling findings indicated that career guidance significantly moderated the relationship between social isolation experience and job search self-efficacy. These results suggest that feeling alone or excluded for undergraduate students may link to job search behaviors and decrease confidence in career decision-making.

Keywords: Job Search Self-Efficacy, Social Isolation, Undergraduate Students, Career Guidance, Gender

JEL Classification: P36, I20

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An Evaluation on Austria-Hungary’s Industrial Process

An Evaluation on Austria-Hungary’s Industrial Process

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: An Evaluation on Austria-Hungary’s Industrial Process
Author(s): Ayda Aslan
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 813-827
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.354
Abstract
This study examines the dynamics behind the industrialization of Austria and Hungary, which entered the industrial revolution late. In these countries where there are no prerequisites for industrialization, these conditions are replaced by substitutes. According to the historical findings obtained from the industrial processes of the Habsburg empire, which consists of two independent states in its internal affairs, the substitutional factors and institutions in the industrialization processes of the two countries vary. In this context, the study, on the one hand, tries to explain the industrialization processes of Austria and Hungary between 1850-1913 comparatively, on the other hand, it reveals the heterogeneous structure of the institutions and institutional qualities of the countries that have fulfilled the necessary conditions for the industrialization process under the same empire.

Keywords: Austria, Hungary, Industrialization, Universal Banks, Government Policies, Institutional Factors

JEL Classification: N13, O23, N64

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Investigation of the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity with Fourier Unit Root Test: The Case of N-11 Countries

Investigation of the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity with Fourier Unit Root Test: The Case of N-11 Countries

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Investigation of the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity with Fourier Unit Root Test: The Case of N-11 Countries
Author(s): Tunahan Haciimamoglu
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 799-811
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.353
Abstract
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an approach which is based on the law of one price and balances the purchasing power of currencies by excluding price differences among countries. The interest in the PPP hypothesis, which is also used as an international development criteria, has been increasing due to price instability and trade deficits faced by countries. Along with the increasing interest, the validity of the PPP hypothesis is tested more often for different country groups and time periods by using modern analysis methods. The aim of this study is to test the validity of the PPP hypothesis for the period 1970-2019 in nine of N-11 countries. Accordingly, the BCIPS unit root analysis method, which allows for cross-section dependence, soft breaks, and common factor structure and which was proposed by Lee, Wu, and Yang (2016), was used as a modern test technique in the study. The findings of the analysis suggest that the real exchange rates for N-11 countries are stationary, therefore, it is concluded that the PPP hypothesis is valid. In this respect, it is revealed that the effect of shocks on the real (effective) exchange rate in N-11 countries is temporary and that PPP can be used as a reliable indicator in monetary policy decisions and international development measures.

Keywords: Purchasing Power Parity, Real Exchange Rate, Fourier Unit Root Test, Stationarity, N-11 Countries

JEL Classification: C23, F31, F41

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Testing of the Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis for Turkey: A Fourier Approach

Testing of the Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis for Turkey: A Fourier Approach

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Testing of the Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis for Turkey: A Fourier Approach
Author(s): Omer Akkus
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 787-798
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.352
Abstract
This study investigates the Feldstein-Horioka hypothesis, which addresses the relationship between domestic investments and savings within the framework of capital mobility whether it is valid for Turkey in the period of 1980-2020. The Fourier KPSS stationarity test based on the KPSS test in revealing the stationarity levels of the variables is applied. The cointegration relationship between variables is revealed through the Fourier cointegration which allows structural change in the cointegration relationship and Shin cointegration test. The coefficient of the model established in the study is estimated by the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares method. The results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between domestic savings and investments when structural change is allowed. It is revealed that domestic savings are insufficient to meet investments while it is determined that the saving coefficient considered as an independent variable in the study is close to zero and the capital mobility is high. As a result, it has been determined that the Feldstein-Horioka hypothesis is not valid for Turkey. Since Turkey is faced with a lack of savings in meeting domestic investments, the development of policies that encourage the entry of foreign capital into the country will allow more investments to be made in the country and contribute to its faster growth.

Keywords: Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis, International Capital Mobility, Investment, Saving, Fourier Cointegration

JEL Classification: C22, E21, E22

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Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Growth, Unemployment, Inflation and Industrial Production in the Euro Area

Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Growth, Unemployment, Inflation and Industrial Production in the Euro Area

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Growth, Unemployment, Inflation and Industrial Production in the Euro Area
Author(s): Mehtap Ozenen Kavlak, Bulent Gunsoy, Muzeyyen Anil Senyel Kurkcuoglu, Saye Nihan Cabuk, Ahmet Dabanli
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 767-786
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.351
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a financial crisis having deeper effects than the global financial crisis that took place in 2008. Large-scale monetary and fiscal measures have been taken globally to minimize the negative outcomes of the pandemic regarding domestic demand, foreign trade, and tourism activities. The aim of this study is to determine how the changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the Eurozone countries affect the macroeconomic indicators. The findings obtained within the scope of the study were mapped in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. In this study, the economic effects of the pandemic on the Eurozone countries are evaluated in terms of the gross domestic product (GDP), one of the most important indicators for evaluating the strength of the country’s economies and development levels, inflation, unemployment, and industrial production. It was seen that the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Eurozone economies manifested themselves in the first quarter of 2020 (Q1) and these effects reached their maximum level in the second quarter (Q2) of the same year. The recovery period and the positive trends signaling a way out of this crisis are observed to start in the third quarter (Q3). The economic developments in this period emerged from the normalization attempts and the relaxation of the tight restriction measures which had been put into practice at the beginning of the pandemic process. The restrictions aiming to prevent the spread of pandemic caused contractions in tourism, industry, and other sectors while resulting in unemployment in these sectors. Switching back to normal, gave way decreases in unemployment rates in the related sectors.

Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Macroeconomics, Eurozone Countries, Geographic Information Systems

JEL Classification: F41, E12

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The Effects of Renewable and Non-renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth on CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries

The Effects of Renewable and Non-renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth on CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Effects of Renewable and Non-renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth on CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries
Author(s): Salih Turedi, Necati Turedi
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 751-765
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.350
Abstract
This study examines the effects of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth on CO2 emissions for 53 developing countries during the period 1990-2014. For this purpose, the study employs a two-step difference Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) approach. Empirical results show that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions, which shows the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The effect of renewable energy consumption (REC) on CO2 emissions was found to be negative and significant, while the effect of non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) was positive and significant. Moreover, both renewable and non-renewable energy consumption positively affect economic growth. Thus, for developing countries aiming to reduce CO2 emissions and the consequent environmental pollution, it is necessary to reduce the share of NREC in total energy consumption and to increase the share of REC. Furthermore, because NREC positively affects economic growth, the efficiency of non-renewable energy resources should be increased in order not to damage the economic growth process while decreasing the use.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Consumption, Non-renewable Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions, Developing Countries

JEL Classification: O44, Q40, Q53

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The Marshall-Lerner Condition in the Fragile Five Economies: Evidence from the ARDL Bounds Test Approach

The Marshall-Lerner Condition in the Fragile Five Economies: Evidence from the ARDL Bounds Test Approach

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: The Marshall-Lerner Condition in the Fragile Five Economies: Evidence from the ARDL Bounds Test Approach
Author(s): Ayrton J. C. Amaral, Marthinus C. Breitenbach
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 731-750
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.349
Abstract
This paper evaluates the Marshall-Lerner condition in the fragile five economies of Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa, and Turkey and, in the process, offers an indication of whether the evaluation of this condition is subject to the limitations that have previously been identified in the literature. This research is novel as it studies a set of countries known as the fragile five, often overlooked in the literature. The ARDL Bounds methodology is used to estimate separate export and import demand equations. Results of the study show little evidence supporting the validity of the Marshall-Lerner condition in these five countries. All the models, except for those relating to Turkey, show signs of underlying issues such as model misspecification. The results imply that future empirical work on the Marshall-Lerner condition, particularly work centred on the fragile five, would likely need to address these underlying empirical issues in order to produce more consistent results.

Keywords: Marshall-Lerner Condition, Fragile Five, ARDL Bounds Test, Trade Elasticities, Emerging Markets

JEL Classification: F32, C22, C50

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Informal Value Transfer System as Terrorism Financing and Money Laundering Tool: The Case of Hawala

Informal Value Transfer System as Terrorism Financing and Money Laundering Tool: The Case of Hawala

Article Information
Journal: Business and Economics Research Journal
Title of Article: Informal Value Transfer System as Terrorism Financing and Money Laundering Tool: The Case of Hawala
Author(s): Ali Yurdakul
Volume: 12
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Page: 829-841
ISSN: 2619-9491
DOI Number: 10.20409/berj.2021.348
Abstract
Terrorism has grown tremendously in the last few decades and has become a serious threat to international peace and security. Determining the financial transactions of criminal and terrorist organizations is an important activity for the fight against terrorism. The study aims to clarify the use of informal value transfer systems and the measures that can be taken in the financing of terrorism and money laundering. The findings of this study are as follows; Following the terrorist events of September 11, 2001, informal value transfer systems came under pressure to regulate and control. Hawala, an alternative traditional remittance method often used by immigrant families to transfer money, has been found to be vulnerable to abuse by criminal organizations and terrorist groups. While making arrangements for the informal value transfer system, it is important that the service provision to those who use these systems is maintained without interruption. For this reason, it has been concluded that it is important to synchronize economic factors, development, prevention of crime and terrorist use in regulations for informal value transfer systems.

Keywords: Terrorism, Terrorism Financing, Money Laundering, Hawala, FATF, Control of Financial Flows

JEL Classification: E26, H56, O17, F55

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